With the new version of SQL Server Microsoft has come with three main editions that are closely aligned with customers business needs and increased investment in business intelligence. As these new editions also includes virtualization it also enables customer to take an advantage of clod computing.
SQL Server 2012 will be released in 3 main editions
1. Enterprise edition for mission critical applications and large-scale data warehousing. All data center capabilities are included in the Enterprise edition of SQL Server 2012
2. Standard edition for basic database, reporting and analytics capabilities. It does not include all power of Enterprise edition
3. Business Intelligence edition a new product edition, providing premium corporate and self-service BI. The main concentration of this new edition is BI capabilities such as scalable reporting and analytic, Power View, and Power Pivot.
Along with three main edition Microsoft SQL Server 2012 continues to deliver some specialize editions that have specialized set of requirements.
1. Developer – contains all the features of Enterprise edition, but strictly meant for development purpose
2. Web – We b-based service providing SQL server 2012 environment.
3. Express – Free edition for nonprofessional developers , enthusiastic developers for build client applications.
For detailed information please refer this link – http://www.microsoft.com/sqlserver/en/us/get-sql-server/licensing.aspx